Most publications are provided as full-text pdfs at ResearchGate. If a full-text is not available please request the text via ResearchGate or contact me directly. My ResearchGate Profile

In peer-reviewed scientific journals


Karlsson, L., Mäki, O., Holford, D., Fasce, A., Schmid, P., Lewandowsky, S., & Soveri, A. (2024). Testing Psychological Inoculation to Reduce Reactance to Vaccine-Related Communication. Health Communication

Holford, D., Schmid, P., Fasce, A., Lewandowsky, S. (2024). The empathetic refutational interview to tackle vaccine misconceptions: Four randomized experiments. Health Psychology.


Schmid, P. (2023). Using Behavioral Science for Infodemic Preparedness: The Case of Vaccination Misinformation. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

Schmid, P. & Werner, B. (2023). Hostility has a trivial effect on persuasiveness of rebutting science denialism on social media. Communications Psychology, 2023 (1):39.

Soveri A, Karlsson LC, Mäki KO, Holford D, Fasce A, Schmid P, Antfolk J, Karlsson L, Karlsson H, Nolvi S, Karukivi M, Lindfelt M, Lewandowsky S. (2023). Trait reactance as psychological motivation to reject vaccination: Two longitudinal studies and one experimental study. Applied Psychology, Health and Well Being.

Lewandowsky, S., Schmid, P., Habersaat, K.B., Nielsen, S.M., Seale, H., Betsch, C., Böhm, R., Geiger, M., Craig, B., Sunstein, C., Sah, S., MacDonald, N.E., Dube, E., Fancourt, D., Larson, H.J., Jackson, C., Mazhnaya, A., Dutta, M., Fountoulakis, K.N., Kachkachishvili, I., Soveri, A., Caserotti, M., Őri, D., De Girolamo, G., Rodriguez-Blazquez, C., Falcón, M., Romay-Barja, M., Forjaz, M.J., Blomquist, S.E., Appelqvist, E., Temkina, A., Lieberoth, A., Harvey, T.S., Holford, D., Fasce, A., Van Damme, P. & Danchin, M. (2023). Lessons from COVID-19 for behavioural and communication interventions to enhance vaccine uptake. Communications Psychology, (1):35.

Karlsson, L.C., Garrison, A., Holford, D., Fasce, A., Lewandowsky, S., Taubert, F., Schmid, P., Betsch, C., Rodrigues, F., Fressard, L., Verger, P. & Soveri, A. (2023). Healthcare professionals’ attitudes to mandatory COVID-19 vaccination. Cross-sectional survey data from four European countries. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 19 (2):2256442.

Fasce, A., Schmid, P., Holford, D. L., Bates, L., Gurevych, I., & Lewandowsky, S. (2023). A taxonomy of anti-vaccination arguments from a systematic literature review and text modelling. Nature Human Behaviour, 1-19.

Fasce, A., Karlsson, L., Verger, P., Mäki, O., Taubert, F., Garrison, A., Schmid. P, … & Soveri, A. (2023). Endorsement of alternative medicine and vaccine hesitancy among physicians: A cross-sectional study in four European countries. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 19(2), 2242748.

Schmid, P., Altay, S. & Scherer, L. (2023). The Psychological lmpacts and Message Features of Health Misinformation: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. European Psychologist. 28, 162-172

Holford, D., Fasce, A., Tapper, K., Demko, M., Lewandowsky, S., Hahn, U., … & Wulf, M. (2023). Science Communication as a Collective Intelligence Endeavor: A Manifesto and Examples for Implementation. Science Communication.

Mäki, K. O., Karlsson, L. C., Kaakinen, J. K., Schmid, P., Lewandowsky, S., Antfolk, J., & Soveri, A. (2023). Tailoring interventions to suit self-reported format preference does not decrease vaccine hesitancy. Plos one, 18(3), e0283030.

Thumbeck, S., Schmid, P., Chesneau, S. & Domahs, F. (2023). Efficacy of reading strategies on text-level reading comprehension in people with post-stroke chronic aphasia: A repeated measures study. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 1-24.

Terry, J., Ross, R. M., Nagy, T., Salgado, M., Garrido-Vásquez, P., Sarfo, J. O., Cooper, S., Buttner, A. C., Lima, T. J. S., Öztürk, İ., Akay, N., Santos, F. H., Artemenko, C., Copping, L. T., Elsherif, M. M., Milovanović, I., Cribbie, R. A., Drushlyak, M. G., Swainston, K., . . . Field, A. P. (2023). Data from an International Multi-Centre Study of Statistics and Mathematics Anxieties and Related Variables in University Students (the SMARVUS Dataset). Journal of Open Psychology Data, 11(1), Article 8.


Betsch, C., Schmid, P., Verger, P., Lewandowsky, S., Soveri, A., Hertwig, R., Fasce, A., Holford, D., De Raeve, P., Gagneur, A., Vuolanto, P., Correia, T., Tavoschi, L., Declich, S., Marceca, M., Linos, A., Karnaki, P., Karlsson, L., Garrison, A. (2022). A call for immediate action to increase COVID-19 vaccination uptake to prepare for the third pandemic winter. Nat Commun.13(1):7511.

Schmid, P., & Betsch, C. (2022). Benefits and Pitfalls of Debunking Interventions to Counter mRNA Vaccination Misinformation During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Science Communication, 10755470221129608.

Kessler, S.H., & Schmid, P. (2022). Editorial: Mis- and Disinformation About Covid-19 – Challenges for Health Communication. European Journal of Health Communication, 3(2), I-VI.

Lewandowsky, S., Holford, D., & Schmid, P. (2022). Public policy and conspiracies: The case of mandates. Current Opinion in Psychology, 101427.

Jörling, M., Eitze, S., Schmid, P., Betsch, C., Allen, J., & Böhm, R. (2022). To disclose or not to disclose? Factors related to the willingness to disclose information to a COVID-19 tracing app. Information, Communication & Society, 1-25.

Garrison, A., Fressard, L., Karlsson, L., Soveri, A., Fasce, A., Lewandowsky, S., … & Verger, P. (2022). Measuring psychosocial determinants of vaccination behavior in healthcare professionals: validation of the Pro-VC-Be short-form questionnaire. Expert Review of Vaccines, 1-10.

Lewandowsky, S., Armaos, K., Bruns, H., Schmid, P., Holford, D. L., Hahn, U., … & Cook, J. (2022). When science becomes embroiled in conflict: Recognizing the public’s need for debate while combating conspiracies and misinformation. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 700(1), 26-40.

Verger, P., Fressard, L., Soveri, A., Dauby, N., Fasce, A., Karlsson, L., Lewandoswky, S., Schmid, P., Dube, E., & Gagneur, A. (2022). An instrument to measure psychosocial determinants of health care professionals’ vaccination behavior: Validation of the Pro-VC-Be questionnaire. Expert Review of Vaccines.

Vivion, M., Anassour Laouan Sidi, E., Betsch, C., Dionne, M., Dubé, E., Driedger, S. M., Schmid, P… & Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN). (2022). Prebunking messaging to inoculate against COVID-19 vaccine misinformation: an effective strategy for public health. Journal of Communication in Healthcare, 1-11.

Ecker, U. K., Lewandowsky, S., Cook, J., Schmid, P., Fazio, L. K., Brashier, N., … & Amazeen, M. A. (2022). The psychological drivers of misinformation belief and its resistance to correction. Nature Reviews Psychology, 1(1), 13-29.


Rabe, J. E., Schillok, H., Merkel, C., Voss, S., Coenen, M., De Bock, F., … & Jung-Sievers, C. (2021). Belastung von Eltern mit Kindern im Schulalter während verschiedener Phasen der COVID-19-Pandemie in Deutschland: Eine Analyse der COVID-19-Snapshot-Monitoring-(COSMO‑) Daten. Bundesgesundheitsblatt-Gesundheitsforschung-Gesundheitsschutz, 64(12), 1500-1511.

Thumbeck S., Schmid P., Chesneau S., Dohmas F. (2021). Efficacy of a strategy-based intervention on text-level reading comprehension in persons with aphasia: a study protocol for a repeated measures study. BMJ Open, 11:e048126. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-048126

Betsch, C., Bosnjak, M., Korn, L., Burgard, T., Gaissmaier, W., Felgendreff, L., Eitze, S., Sprengholz, P., Böhm, R., Stollorz, V., Ramharter, M., Promies, N., De Bock, F., Schmid, P., Renner, B., & Wieler, L. (2021. The four weeks before lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany: A weekly serial cross-sectional study on risk perceptions, knowledge, public trust and behaviours in March 2020. Eurosurveillance (Print).


Schmid, P., Schwarzer, M., & Betsch, C. (2020). Weight-of-Evidence Strategies to Mitigate the Influence of Messages of Science Denialism in Public Discussions. Journal of Cognition, 3(1), 36.

Betsch, C., Korn, L., Sprengholz, P., Felgendreff, L., Eitze, S., Schmid, P., & Böhm, R. (2020). Social and behavioral consequences of mask policies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(36), 21851-21853.

Habersaat, K., Betsch, C., Danchin, M., Sunstein, C., Böhm, R., Falk, A., Brewer, N.T., Omer, S.B., Scherzer, M., Sah, S., Fischer, E.F., Scheel, A.E., Fancourt, D., Kitayama, S., Dubé, E., Leask, J., Dutta, M., MacDonald, N.E., Temkina, A., Lieberoth, A., Jackson, M. Lewandowsky, S., Seale, H., Fiethe, N., Schmid, P., Gelfand, M., Korn, L., Eitze, S., Felgendreff, L. Sprengholz, P., Salvi, C., Butler, R(2020). Ten considerations for effectively managing the COVID-19 transition. Nature Human Behaviour, 4(7), 677-687.

Neufeind, J., Betsch, C., Habersaat, K. B., Eckardt, M., Schmid, P., & Wichmann, O. (2020). Barriers and drivers to adult vaccination among family physicians–Insights for tailoring the immunization program in Germany. Vaccine, 38 (27), 4252-4262.


Haase, N., Schmid, P., & Betsch, C. (2020). Impact of disease risk on the narrative bias in vaccination risk perceptions. Psychology & Health, 35(3), 346–365.

Schmid, P., & Betsch, C. (2019). Effective strategies for rebutting science denialism in public discussions. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(9), 931-939. https://10.1038/s41562-019-0632-4

Betsch, C., Böhm, R., Schmid, P., Korn, L., Steinmeyer, L., Heinemeier, D., Eitze, S. & Küpke, N.K. (2019). Impfverhalten psychologisch erklären, messen und verändern. Bundesgesundheitsblatt-Gesundheitsforschung-Gesundheitsschutz, 62(4), 400-409.


Betsch, C., Schmid, P., Heinemeier, D., Korn, L., Holtmann, C., & Böhm, R. (2018). Beyond confidence: Development of a measure assessing the 5C psychological antecedents of vaccination. PloS one, 13(12), e0208601. 

Betsch, C., Rossmann, C., Pletz, M.W., Vollmar, H.C., Freytag, A., Wichmann, O., Hanke, R., Hanke, W., Heinemeier, D., Schmid, P., Eitze, S., Weber, W., Reinhardt, A., Küpke, N.K., Forstner, C., Fleischmann-Struzek, C., Mikolajetz, A., Römhild, J., Neufeind, J., Rieck, T., Suchecka, K., Reinhart, K. (2018). Increasing influenza and pneumococcal vaccine uptake in the elderly: Study protocol for the multi-methods prospective intervention study Vaccination60+. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 885.

Betsch, C., Bödeker, B., Schmid, P., & Wichmann, O. (2018). How baby’s first shot determines the development of maternal attitudes towards vaccination. Vaccine, 36(21), 3018-3026.

Schmid, P., MacDonald, N. E., Habersaat, K., & Butler, R. (2018). Commentary to: How to respond to vocal vaccine deniers in public. Vaccine, 36 (2), 196-198. doi:

2017 and earlier

Schmid, P., Rauber, D., Betsch, C., Lidolt, G., & Denker, M. L. (2017). Barriers of influenza vaccination intention and behavior–a systematic review of influenza vaccine hesitancy, 2005–2016. PloS one, 12(1), e0170550.

Betsch, C.*, Haase, N.*, Renkewitz, F., & Schmid, P. (2015). The narrative bias revisited: What drives the biasing influence of narrative information on risk perceptions? Judgment and Decision Making, 10(3), 241–264. (*shared first authorship)

Betsch, C. & Schmid, P. (2012). Angst essen Impfbereitschaft auf? Der Einfluss kognitiver und affektiver Faktoren auf die Risikowahrnehmung im Ausbruchsgeschehen. [The influence of cognitive and affective aspects of risk perception during outbreaks.] Bundesgesundheitsblatt-Gesundheitsforschung-Gesundheitsschutz, 56, 124-130.


Holford, D., Fasce, A., Tapper, K., Demko, M., Lewandowsky, S., Hahn, U., A., Al-Rawi, A.,
Alladin, A., Boender, T. S., Bruns, H., Fischer, F., Gilde, C., Hanel, P. H. P., Herzog, S. M., Kause, A.,
Lehmann, S., Nurse, M. S., Orr, C., Pescetelli, N., Petrescu, M., Sah, S., Schmid, P., Sirota, M., & Wulf,
M. (2022). A manifesto for science communication as collective intelligence.

Lewandowsky, S., Cook, J., Schmid, P., Holford, D.L., Finn, A., Leask, J., Thomson, A., Lombardi,D., Al-Rawi, A.K., Amazeen, M.A., Anderson, E.C., Armaos, K.D., Betsch,C., Bruns, H.H.B., Ecker, U.K.H., Gavaruzzi, T., Hahn, U., Herzog, S., Juanchich, M., Kendeou, P., Newman, E.J., Pennycook, G., Rapp, D.N., Sah, S., Sinatra, G.M., Tapper, K., Vraga, E.K. (2021). The COVID-19 Vaccine Communication Handbook. A practical guide for improving vaccine communication and fighting misinformation.

Lewandowsky, S., Cook, J., Ecker, U. K. H., Albarracín, D., Amazeen, M. A., Kendeou, P., Lombardi, D., Newman, E. J., Pennycook, G., Porter, E. Rand, D. G., Rapp, D. N., Reifler, J., Roozenbeek, J., Schmid, P.,  Seifert, C. M., Sinatra, G. M., Swire-Thompson, B., van der Linden, S., Vraga, E. K., Wood, T. J., Zaragoza, M. S. (2020). The Debunking Handbook 2020.

Betsch, C., Rossmann, C., Bach-Habersaat, K., Schmid, P., Holtmann, C., Korn, L., Wiehn, J., Mummer, L. (2017). Vaccination and trust – How concerns arise and the role of communication in mitigating crises. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe.

Schmid, P., MacDonald, N., Bach-Habersaat, K., Butler, R. (2016). Best practice guidance: How to respond to vocal vaccine deniers in public. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe.

Book chapters

Taubert, F., Schmid, P. (2023). Verschwörungstheorien aus gesundheitspsychologischer Perspektive. In book: Die Psychologie der Verschwörungstheorien. Publisher: Roland Imhoff (Hrsg.) – Hogrefe. DOI:  10.1026/03179-000

Lewandowsky, S., Armaos, K., Bruns, H., Schmid, P., Holford, D. L., Hahn, U., Al-Rawi, A., Sah, S., Cook, J., Juanchich, M., & Ladyman, J. (2022). COVID-19: Conspiracies and Collateral Damage vs Constructive Critique (pp. 374-397). In J. Musolino, J. Sommer, & P. Hemmer (Eds.), The Cognitive Science of Belief. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/9781009001021.026.

Betsch, C., Schmid, P., Holtmann, C., Heinemeier, D. & Korn, L. (2018). Erklärung und Veränderung von Präventionsverhalten. In:  Kohlmann, C.-W., Salewski, C., Wirtz, M. A. (Hrsg.). Psychologie in der Gesundheitsförderung (pp. 341–354). Bern: Hogrefe.

Public writings

Schmid, P. (2022). Verbesserung der Impfquoten und der Impfakzeptanz – Management einer Infodemie. Impfen im Umbruch Berichtsband Nationale Impfkonferenz NIK.

Schmid, P., Lewandowsky,. S. (2021). Tackling COVID disinformation with empathy and conversation. The Conversation.

Lewandowsky,. S., Schmid, P. (2021). How to fight Covid vaccine misinformation. Aljazeera.

Schmid, P. (2020). Postfaktische Apokalypse? – Vier Strategien gegen Wissenschaftsleugnung.

Schmid, P. (2019). Fake News (Rhetorische Fallen erkennen und vermeiden). Impfstrategien im Kontext internationaler Herausforderungen Berichtsband Nationale Impfkonferenz NIK.

Schmid, P. (2016). Impfmüdigkeit. Skeptiker 4/2016.